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The eye is an intricate structure made up of various parts working together to produce vision. Vision can be affected when one element of the structure is not working properly (due to disease, accident, or congenital conditions).
In many cases, vision may be corrected through the use of corrective measures (glasses, contacts, minor surgeries).
However there are instances when these measures are not effective.
To determine whether vision is correctable, a trained and licensed Optometrist or Ophthalmologist can conduct a series of measurements and tests to verify what the current vision level is. The standard procedure is to measure:
Visual Acuity – how clearly the eye can view objects in relation to normal vision.
Field of vision – refers to the range of vision, measured by the
degree the eye is able to see in any direction while looking front.
Loss of Sight
Describes reduced vision that cannot be corrected by glasses or contact lenses. It is measured as:
20/30 to 20/60: mild, near-normal
20/70 to 20/160: moderate low
Describes reduced vision that is 10% or less.
20/200 to 20/400: severe low
20/500 to 20/1,000: profound low
More than 20/1,000: near total blindness
No Light Perception: total blindness
Anatomy of the Eye
Illustration Courtesy of: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
Retina: nerve layer that senses light and sends electrical impulses to the optic nerve
Macula: small central area in the retina containing special light-sensitive cells that allow us to clearly see fine details
Optic Nerve: connects the eye to the brain and carries electrical impulses to the visual cortex of the brain
Vitreous: clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye
Cornea: focuses and transmits light into the eye
Iris: Helps to regulate the amount of light entering
Pupil: determines how much light is let in the eye
Lens: clear part in the eye that focuses in light rays
For more information on sight and sight conditions, contact your local optometrist, ophthalmologist or CNIB.
Did you know?
The correct language is “people who are blind” or “people who are partially-sighted”
People who are blind or partially sighted can be and should be as physically active as their sighted counterparts
There are specific sight classifications for athletes who are blind or partially sighted:
B1 - From no light perception in either eye to light perception, but inability to recognize the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction
B2 - From ability to recognize the shape of a hand to a visual acuity of 2/60 and/or visual field of less than 5 degrees
B3 - From visual acuity above 2/60 to visual acuity of 6/60 and/or visual field of more than 5 degrees and less than 20 degrees.
The purpose of SBSA is to promote and facilitate sport opportunities towards excellence for persons who are blind or partially sighted, by delivering sport programs, creating awareness, and advocating for sport inclusion.
Awareness Participation Excellence Inclusion
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SBSA gratefully acknowledges